NF-κB is a transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in a number of physiological cell processes such as growth, apoptosis, and immune response through regulating the expression of a number of cellular genes. The NF-κB family includes five members: cRel, RelB, p65(RelA), p50(p105, precursor of p50), and p52(p100, precursor of p52), which form homo- or heterodimers when in active status. Normally, NF-κB is inactive and retained in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitory protein IκB. Upon stimulation of various factors such as infection of pathogens including viruses and bacteria or treatment of cytokines such as IL-1 or TNF-a, IκB proteins are phosphorylated, ubiquitinated and finally degraded. Released NF-κB proteins then form homo- or heterodimers, most commonly p50/p65 or p50/p50, which are transported into the nucleus where they bind to specific DNA sequences of targeted genes and activate transcription. NF-κB also induces expression of its own inhibitor, IκBa, which binds to active NF-κB in the nucleus to terminate the induction of gene expression.
- Specific transcription factor-DNA binding assay
- Perfect alternative to EMSA
- Easy to perform in an ELISA format
- Non-radioactive assay
- High throughput (96-well plate format)
- Assay can be completed within 5 hours
The olionucleotide/antibody pair provided in this kit recognizes human NF-κB p65 in whole lysates and nuclear extracts.
Target Protein Information
Transcription factor p65 (Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit) (Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3)
- 96-well Strip Microplate pre-coated with DNA probes
- DNA Binding Buffer
- Positive Control Sample
- Specific Competitor DNA probe
- Non-specific Competitor DNA probe
- Assay Reagent
- Wash Buffer
- Primary Antibody
- HRP-conjugated Secondary Antibody
- TMB One-Step Substrate Reagent
- Stop Solution
Other Materials Required
- Distilled or deionized water
- 100 ml and 1 liter graduated cylinders
- Tubes to prepare sample dilutions
- Absorbent paper
- Precision pipettes to deliver 2 µl to 1 ml volumes
- Adjustable 1-25 ml pipettes for reagent preparation
- Benchtop rocker or shaker
- Microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450 nm
- Prepare all reagents and samples as instructed in the manual.
- Add 100 µl of sample or positive control to each well.
- Incubate 2 h at RT or O/N at 4 °C.
- Add 100 µl of prepared primary antibody to each well.
- Incubate 1 h at RT.
- Add 100 µl of prepared HRP-secondary antibody to each well.
- Incubate 1 h at RT.
- Add 100 µl of TMB One-Step Substrate Reagent to each well.
- Incubate 30 min at RT.
- Add 50 µl of Stop Solution to each well.
- Read at 450 nm immediately.
Upon receipt, the positive control should be removed and stored at -20° or -80°C. The remainder of the kit can be stored for up to 6 months at 2-8°C from the date of shipment. Opened Microplate Wells or reagents may be stored for up to 1 month at 2° to 8°C. Return unused wells to the pouch containing desiccant pack, reseal along entire edge.
Note: The kit can be used within one year if the whole kit is stored at -20°C upon receipt. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.