Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) — also called optical emission spectroscopy (OES) — are used to detect the elemental constituents in samples. Both techniques involve the atomization of a sample. Atomic absorption spectrometers may use a flame or furnace to create an atomic vapor of the sample before irradiation with spectral light. Optical emission spectrometers may use a flame, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), microwave plasma (MP) or spark arcs to atomize and excite the sample. At higher excitation energies, electrons can be emitted instead of photons, which can be useful for samples that can’t be atomized and for surface analysis. Explore electron spectroscopy equipment such as Auger spectrometers and photoelectron spectrometers for surface elemental analysis of samples. Find the best atomic absorption, photoelectron and optical emission spectrometers in our peer-reviewed product directory: compare products, check customer reviews and receive pricing direct from manufacturers.