Affymetrix' GeneChip® technology was invented in the late 1980's by a team of scientists lead by Stephen P.A. Fodor, Ph.D. The theory behind their work was revolutionary - a notion that semiconductor manufacturing techniques could be united with advances in combinatorial chemistry to build vast amounts of biological data on a small glass chip. This technology became the basis of a new company, Affymetrix, formed as a division of Affymax, N.V. in 1991. Affymetrix began operating independently in 1992.