How to Buy a UV/Vis Spectrophotometer



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UV/Vis spectrophotometry is a common technique used for qualitative and quantitative analyses, for a wide range of applications. Laboratories seeking a new UV/Vis spectrophotometer have many choices, from the simplest single-wavelength instruments to high-performance, multi-spectrum analyzers. This guide will highlight important considerations for purchasing a UV/Vis spectrophotometer.

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1. Useful Questions

In order to make the most out of your purchasing power, you should ask yourself and your colleagues the following questions before speaking to a manufacturer:

  • What is your budget? It is important to understand and work within a realistic budget.
  • What applications will you use the instrument for? Consider the hardware and software which will be best suited to your needs. Don’t forget to consider any future applications you may require the instrument for, or ways in which others in your laboratory may wish to use the instrument.
  • Is it possible to upgrade the system or add on additional modules? Again, take into account any future applications you might require this instrument for. Would it be useful to purchase a system that can be used to perform additional types of analyses?
  • Are you replacing an instrument Review with others what the advantages and limitations of the old instrument were. This will help you decide which features are essential or desirable in your next purchase.
  • How important is speed and efficiency? Which features or technologies would streamline your workflow and save time for users? How will the system integrate into your current workflow? Remember to take into account your future goals, such as the introduction of liquid handling robots or an increase in sample volume.
  • What servicing and maintenance and support do you need? Find out what type of maintenance the instrument requires and how often. Decide which type of servicing package you will require.
  • Is the software user friendly? Will the instrument need to be used by many non-expert users, or by a handful of super-users?
  • Is the software compatible with other devices in your lab? Consider which platforms you would like to use to view your data. Is the operating system of the spectrophotometer compatible with Apple, Android or Microsoft devices.

2. Basic Concepts

UV/Vis refers to the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (Vis) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Joint Committee on Nomenclature in Applied Spectroscopy sets the far UV region at 10–200 nm, near UV at 200–380 nm and visible at 380–780 nm. Modern UV/Vis spectrophotometers typically have wavelength range from 190 nm to 1100 nm. When a beam of electromagnetic radiation strikes an object, it can be absorbed, transmitted, scattered, reflected, or it can cause fluorescence. The processes that are involved in UV/Vis spectroscopy are absorption and transmission. When ultraviolet and visible radiation interacts with matter, electronic transitions take place; that is, electrons in the ground state are promoted to a high energy state. In particular, π to π* and n to π* transitions occur in the UV/Vis region.

2.1 Transmittance and Absorbance

When a beam of light passes through a sample, the amount of light absorbed is the difference between the incident radiation (I0) and the transmitted radiation (I). Transmittance and absorbance are terms used to express the amount of light absorbed by the sample (Table 1). Absorbance in older literature is also called 'extinction' or 'optical density' (OD).

Transmittance (T) Absorbance (A)
T=I/I0 IA = -logT
%T=I/I0 x 100 Unit: theoretically, none, but 'A' or 'AU' are used to report absorbance measurements ('OD' is also sometimes used)
Table 1: Transmittance and absorbance calculations

2.2 The Beer-Lambert Law

The Beer-Lambert Law (Figure 1) states that the concentration of an analyte in solution is directly proportional to the absorbance (A) of the solution.

Figure 1: Beer-Lambert law

3. Application Considerations

UV/Vis spectrophotometry can be used for a wide range of applications over many disciplines including life sciences, pharmaceutical, food & beverage, environmental and materials science. When determining what specification and features you require, it is essential that you carefully consider the various applications that you may need your UV/Vis spectrophotometer to perform, not just now, but in coming years. Important factors to take into account include:

  • Analytes: The wavelength of maximum absorption of analytes you wish to detect and quantify will determine the wavelength range you require from your spectrophotometer. Many UV/Vis spectrophotometers are designed for life science and drug discovery applications and cover a range of the UV/Vis spectrum, often from 190nm - 840nm. However, some instruments designed specifically for materials and environmental applications have a wider wavelength range.
  • Volume of samples to be analyzed: Those working with low volumes of precious samples, such as DNA or protein, will benefit from investment in a micro-volume spectrophotometer, which can analyze as little as 0.5µL of sample. Some spectrophotometers can also accommodate large cuvettes, to facilitate other absorbance and fluorescence methods.
  • Software and usability: Consider the user interface and inclusion of software features such as predefined methods, data analysis and contamination alerts. This can enhance ease-of-use, enabling improved workflow efficiency and reduced training needs. 
  • Regulated industry: Those working in regulated industries, such as food and beverage manufacturing or the pharmaceutical industry, will require instruments to be compliant with industry standards and often have advanced QC and security features.
  • Future applications: Do you foresee any future application needs which would require a larger spectral range, different sample volumes, additional software features or the ability to perform different spectrophotometric analyses such as fluorescence?

Read on to discover some of the latest instruments on the market and their relevant applications.

3.1 Life Sciences

In life sciences, UV/Vis absorbance spectrophotometry is commonly used to quickly and easily determine nucleic acid concentration and assess sample purity. In protein biology, it is used to quantify proteins, either directly or through a Bradford assay. UV/Vis can also be utilized to monitor cellular and microbial growth, as well as ELISA and kinetic assays. Important features you should consider:

  • Micro-volume samples
  • Predesigned and customizable applications – the ability to select common methods, such as Bradford assay, enzyme kinetics and nucleic acid quantification
  • Temperature control

3.2 Regulated Industry & Applied Chemistry

UV/Vis spectrophotometry can be applied to a wide range of applications, including:

  • Drug discovery & pharmaceutical:Quantitative analysis of drug formulations, quality control, drug development and delivery.
  • Materials science:Analysis of a range of materials including glass, metals and paint, as part of material development as well as for quality control.
  • Food and beverage:Quantitative determination of ingredients and drinking water analysis.
  • Environmental analysis:Analysis of trace analytes in waste and environmental waters.
  • Clinical diagnostics and medical research:Many clinical analyses, and increasingly used for non-invasive analysis of soft tissues.
 

4. Considerations for Instrument Components

The different components of a UV/Vis spectrophotometer contribute to the overall performance of the instrument. The UV/Vis spectrophotometer consists of five basic components:

  • Light source – provides radiation of appropriate wavelength
  • Sample compartment– the area where the sample is introduced into the light beam
  • Monochromator– produces a beam of monochromatic light; in the conventional UV/Vis configuration, it consists of an entrance slit, collimating device, dispersing device, focusing lens or mirror, and an exit slit
  • Detector – detects and measures the intensity of radiation
  • Signal handling and measuring system– processes data and controls the instrument

Figure 2: Graphical setup of the Mettler-Toledo UV/VIS Spectrophotometers. Xenon lamp
setup with CCD sensor. Source: Mettler-Toledo International.

4.1 Sample Format

Most samples analyzed by UV/Vis are in liquid or solution state. Traditional sample cells include cuvettes, sippers (an accessory which automatically fills the cells with sample solution), and microtiter plates, such as those compatible with the Epoch™ 2. Microvolume spectrophotometers, such as the DS-11 FX+, use a microvolume platform onto which the sample solution can be directly pipetted. Typically, sample volumes are in the range of 0.5 to 2 µL. Some instruments feature fiber-optic probes for measuring samples outside the UV/Vis spectrophotometer’s sample compartment. This enables analysis of the sample in situ, which is especially useful when it is not possible to physically remove samples, for example, when monitoring industrial production lines, blood or the environment. Another consideration is pathlength. Microvolume spectrophotometers have a very short pathlength, normally between 0.1 to 1mm, which allows highly concentrated samples to be analyzed without the need for dilution. Figure 12 shows a video of the SmartPath® technology with BridgeTesting™ from DeNovix, which enables microvolume droplets of sample to be analyzed accurately in a range of 0.74 ng/µL to 37,500 ng/µL dsDNA. At the opposite end of the spectrum, some instruments accommodate a very long pathlength. For example, as well as microvolume samples, some instruments can accommodate cuvettes, increasing sensitivity and allowing for the detection of analytes at trace levels. Instruments that offer additional assay flexibility by integrating microvolume and cuvette absorbance with fluorescence measurements should also be considered

TIP: If using cuvettes as sample cells, it is important to consider the cuvette material. Common materials include optical glass, quartz and sapphire. The transmission range of the material will need to match the wavelength range of your analytes; materials which have a broader transmission range, such as sapphire, come at a higher cost.

4.2 Light Source

The light source should be stable during the measurement period. That is, the intensity of emitted radiation should not fluctuate, and there should be adequate intensity over as large a wavelength region as possible. The ideal light source would yield a constant intensity over all wavelengths, with low noise and long-term stability. Table 2 lists the light sources for UV/Vis spectrophotometers. The different sources are not equivalent; they provide light intensities and noise at different parts of the spectrum.

Xenon (190 – 1100 nm) Tungsten-halogen (320 – 1100 nm)/th> Deuterium (190 – 380 nm)
Covers the UV and visible range but higher instrumental stray light and less energy at the far visible end; ideal for general measurements, long lifetime (typically seven years). Typical life approximately 2,000 hrs; relatively inexpensive. Good intensity continuum in the UV region; typical life approximately 1,000 hrs.

Table 2. List of UV/Vis light sources

Many UV/Vis spectrophotometers use both deuterium and tungsten-halogen lamps to cover the entire UV (deuterium lamp) and visible (tungsten-halogen lamp) spectrum. Either a source selector is used to switch between the lamps as appropriate, or the light from the two sources is mixed to yield a single broadband source. This type of setup is known as scanning. Xenon flash lamps are becoming the most commonly used source for life science applications because they cover the entire UV and visible range, have extended lifetimes, do not require warm-up time, and do not raise the temperature of the sample compartment. Light-emitting diodes (LED) are used in some instruments as low-cost solutions for simple applications, as the lamp life is almost infinite. In this case, the setup is known as array.

Download this array versus scanning white paper for a comparison of these two well-established spectrophotometer setups and find out more about their individual performance.

4.3 Software & Data Management

UV/Vis software is an area which is constantly developing and expanding. Most spectrophotometers now include their own software which controls the instrument, and collects, analyzes and manipulates data. Many software packages now come with pre-programmed methods which enable users to perform routine analyses and calculate common parameters with just a few clicks. A combination of an intuitive user interface and software can make the instrument more accessible to occasional, non-expert users as well as speeding up routine analysis. For example, many instruments suited to life sciences include pre-programmed applications for nucleic acid quantification, protein and peptide quantification, kinetic assays and optical density and cell/mL calculations.

Examples Include:

Some instruments allow standalone operation with a touchscreen user interface like that of the DS-11 FX + from DeNovix, making operation simple and efficient. Software like EasyApps®, an easy-to-use, icon driven interface using a customized Android™ OS, take advantage of many of the touchscreen navigation features already familiar to many of today's researchers. Discover highlights of the key features of EasyApps® software in this application note.

4.4 Connectivity

Ease of data export is important for standalone instruments. Many models now come with USB, WiFi and Ethernet, giving you more freedom when organizing your laboratory space and making it easier to access your data. Some platforms also have apps, such as Denovix’s Data app, that enable users to email data as a csv or jpeg file, save data to a LIMS or network drive, or print out the data to network printers or label writers. It’s also important to consider the ability to set up user accounts on instruments that allow individual users to save pre-configured methods of their choice, increasing speed to results and ease-of-use for even non-expert users.

4.5 Monochromator

The ideal monochromator should produce monochromatic light. In practice, however, the output is always a band, optimally symmetrical in shape. The dispersing device in monochromators can be a prism or diffraction grating. Most modern spectrophotometers contain holographic gratings instead of prisms.

4.6 Detector

Ideally, the detector should give a linear response over a wide range, with low noise and high sensitivity. Table 3 shows the different types of detectors used in UV/Vis spectrophotometers. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) and photodiodes are single-channel detectors, and the most commonly used in the instruments currently on the market. Photodiodes are usually found in low-end instruments, while PMTs are used in higher-end instruments (research grade). Photodiode arrays (PDA) and charge-coupled devices (CCD) are multi-channel detectors. They allow for fast acquisition of the entire spectrum, and since they have less moving parts, are more robust. However, they are not as sensitive as PMTs.

Multi-Channel/Array Single Channel
Charge-coupled device (CCD)
  • Fast acquisition of entire spectrum
  • Less moving parts
  • Can be used for other measurements such as fluorescence
Photodiode
  • Most common
  • Compared to PMT: less expensive, less sensitive, more robust
Photodiode array
  • Fast acquisition of entire spectrum
  • Less moving parts
Photomultiplier (PMT)
  • High sensitivity
  • Wide spectral range
  • Quick response
Table 3: Various detectors for UV/Vis spectrophotometers

5. Considerations for Optical Configurations/Optical Design

There are several optical configurations for the UV/Vis spectrophotometers you will find on the market, shown in Table 4. The single beam configuration was the earliest design and is still in common use, especially among low-end instruments. Double beam and dual beam spectrophotometers measure the ratio of light intensities and, therefore, are not as sensitive to fluctuations in the light source or detector. Split beam resembles the dual-beam spectrophotometer but uses a beam splitter instead of a chopper and uses two separate but identical detectors. Single beam, double beam and split beam are conventional UV/Vis spectrophotometers. In conventional systems, polychromatic light from the source is focused on the entrance slit of a monochromator, which selectively transmits a narrow band of light. This light then passes through the sample area to the detector. In multi-channel UV/Vis spectrophotometers, polychromatic light from a source passes through the sample area and is focused on the entrance slit of the polychromator, which disperses the light onto a diode array where each diode measures a narrow band of the spectrum. This diode array, known as a photodiode array detector (PDA), is typically made up of a linear array of 1,024 phototubes for each different wavelength.

Single Beam  
Double Beam  
  • Light is split into two different paths by a chopper, one detector
  • More complex optics: higher cost, good stability, lower sensitivity
  • Example: The Aquarius™ range from Cecil Instruments uses a double beam optical system to provide a fully symmetrical band, enabling high-accuracy measurements.
Split Beam  
  • Light is split into two different paths by a splitter, one passes through the sample; the other is used as the reference
  • More complex optics: higher cost, good stability, lower sensitivity
Multi-Channel/ Array Based  

Table 4: Optical configurations of UV/Vis spectrophotometers

Advantages of multi-channel/array-based instruments include:

  • Greater robustness — require less moving parts, so require less maintenance
  • Faster — full spectrum scan speeds; some instruments can provide full-spectrum scans in as little as 1 second.
Figure 3 illustrates the differences between the instrument component set-ups in conventional (single beam configuration is shown) and multi-channel (PDA system is shown) systems.

 

Figure 3: Schematic showing the difference between conventional and multi-channel PDA spectrophotometers.

6. Considerations for Performance Criteria

There are several criteria to consider when buying a new UV/Vis spectrophotometer, but wavelength accuracy, wavelength reproducibility and noise levels are particularly important.

6.1 Wavelength Accuracy

The ability of an instrument to produce well defined peaks at a series of wavelengths throughout the UV and visible range.

Wavelength accuracy is most important when you want to compare results between different instruments. Deviation in the wavelength can cause errors in both quantitative and qualitative results. Wavelength accuracy is most commonly checked by using certified reference standards.

TIP: The level of wavelength accuracy required is dependent on your application. A typical level of wavelength accuracy for UV/Vis instruments is around ±1nm, however, some instruments achieve accuracies of ±0.5nm.

6.2 Wavelength Reproducibility

The ability of the instrument to produce the same wavelength over repeat readings

Wavelength reproducibility is the ability of the instrument to produce the same wavelength over repeat readings. This is important as it allows for accurate comparison of one reading to another, for example a sample to a blank, or one sample to another.

6.3 Photometric (Absorbance) Accuracy

Photometric accuracy is defined as how accurately an instrument measures absorbance.

This is determined by the difference between the measured absorbance and the established standard value. It can be considered the most important parameter for applications which involve comparison of extinction coefficients between instruments, spectral identification, and sample purity analysis.

TIP: Absolute photometric accuracy may not be critical to your application. In most quantitation applications, as long as the measurements are reproducible and linear over the wavelength range, the photometric accuracy is not critical. However, it does become a critical parameter when comparing the results over multiple instruments.

6.4 Photometric Reproducibility

The precision with which the UV/Vis instrument can make repeated measurements.

It indicates how well the measured absorbance value can be reproduced.

6.5 Linear Dynamic Range

The concentration range over which absorbance and concentration remain directly proportional to each other.

A wide linear dynamic range permits the analysis of a wide range of sample concentrations (optical densities) and reduces sample preparation (dilution) requirements.

6.6 Noise

Fluctuations in a UV/Vis spectra originating from the light source and electronic components. 

Noise in UV/Vis spectrophotometry mainly originates from the light source and electronic components. This can affect the accuracy at both low and high ends of the absorbance scale. Photon noise from the light source affects the accuracy of the measurements at low absorbance, while electronic noise from the components affects high- absorbance measurement accuracy. High noise levels will reduce the limit of detection and the instrument’s sensitivity.

6.7 Photometric Range (Working Absorbance Range)

The ability of the instrument to handle strongly absorbing samples (low transmission samples).

For some applications, specifically those that have strongly absorbing species, it is important to consider the photometric range. A spectrophotometer that can detect transmission of 10% has a photometric range of 1A, where 1% is 2A, 0.1% is 3A. A photometric range of 3.5A to 4A means it can handle samples that absorb as much as 99.99% of incident light.

TIP: The photometric range specified for a UV/Vis spectrophotometer does not mean that it is linear over that range. Not all instruments give their specifications for linear dynamic range, though they always give the photometric range. So, if linear dynamic range is important to you, be sure to ask about it.

6.8 Photometric Stability

The ability of the instrument to maintain a steady state over time, so that the effect of the drift on the accuracy of the measurements becomes insignificant.

Variations in lamp intensity and electronic outputs between the measurements of the incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) result in instrument drifts. These changes can lead to error in the value of the measurements, especially over a long period of time. Photometric stability is the ability of the instrument to maintain a steady state over time so that the effect of the drift on the accuracy of the measurements becomes insignificant.

6.9 Stray Light

The unwanted radiation or wavelength of light, other than the desired wavelength, that reaches the detector.

Stray light causes a decrease in absorbance and reduces the linearity range of the instrument. High absorbance measurements are more severely impacted by stray light.

6.10 Spectral Bandwidth and Resolution

Indication of the range of wavelengths exiting the monochromator and the ability to resolve spectral features and bands into individual components.

Spectral bandwidth and resolution are related; the smaller the spectral bandwidth, the finer the resolution. In general, poor resolution leads to a decrease in the extinction coefficient across the spectrum and, therefore, inaccurate quantitation. The sensitivity of the measurement is also compromised. Most UV/Vis spectrophotometers provide adequate resolution for common applications. If your application requires detailed spectral information, you will require an instrument with very small bandwidth, to gain better resolution.

6.11 Baseline Flatness

The ability of the instrument to normalize the output of the lamp and detector responses.

For UV/Vis spectrophotometers that have dual light sources (a deuterium lamp for the UV range and a tungsten lamp for the visible range), the intensity of the radiation coming from the light sources is not constant over the whole UV/ visible range. The response of the detector also varies over the spectral range. A flat baseline demonstrates the ability of the instrument to normalize the output of the lamp and detector responses.

6.12 Wavelength Range

Range in which the instrument is capable of measuring.

UV/Vis instruments typically have 190–1100nm wavelength range. However, some life sciences-specific instruments provide a narrower range, as common analytes such as dsDNA and protein all fall within the UV range (Table 5).

Instrument Wavelength range (nm)
Mettler Toledo UV/Vis Excellence line 190 - 1100
BMG LABTECH SPECTROstar® Omega Absorbance Plate Reader 220 - 1000
Implen NP80 NanoPhotometer 200 - 900
DeNovix Inc. DS-11 FX+ Spectrophotometer / Fluorometer 190 - 840
Unchained Lab Lunatic 230 - 750
Table 5: Wavelength Ranges of a Selection of UV/Vis Spectrophotometers
 

6.13 Resolution

The factor which determines the maximum number of peaks which can be resolved within a given wavelength range.

Resolution, or resolving power, is the main factor which determines the performance of a spectrophotometer. A low resolution will make it impossible to differentiate between absorbance peaks which are close together in wavelength, making spectral identification challenging.

Performance verification Quality requirements for UV/Vis used in regulated industry continue to become increasingly stringent. Many manufacturers supply certified reference materials which comply with the requirements of most major pharmaceutical regulatory bodies, known as pharmacopoeias. These reference materials are often designed to measure the following performance indicators:

• Wavelength Accuracy
• Photometric Accuracy
• Stray Light
• Spectral Resolution

Examples of UV/Vis reference material providers include Hellma Analytics, Merck Millipore: Certipur® reference materials, Mettler-Toledo: CertiRef™.

6.13 Resolution

The factor which determines the maximum number of peaks which can be resolved within a given wavelength range.

Resolution, or resolving power, is the main factor which determines the performance of a spectrophotometer. A low resolution will make it impossible to differentiate between absorbance peaks which are close together in wavelength, making spectral identification challenging.

Performance verification Quality requirements for UV/Vis used in regulated industry continue to become increasingly stringent. Many manufacturers supply certified reference materials which comply with the requirements of most major pharmaceutical regulatory bodies, known as pharmacopoeias. These reference materials are often designed to measure the following performance indicators:

• Wavelength Accuracy
• Photometric Accuracy
• Stray Light
• Spectral Resolution

Examples of UV/Vis reference material providers include Hellma Analytics, Merck Millipore: Certipur® reference materials, Mettler-Toledo: CertiRef™.

7. Examples of Instruments Available

The DS-11 FX+ Spectrophotometer / Fluorometer instrument (Figure 4) from DeNovix is designed especially for life sciences applications. SmartPath® technology controls the pathlength in real time, while compressing the sample during analysis, which ensures the optimal pathlength for each sample and eliminates broken sample columns that can be an issue when instruments stretch the sample between pedestals, — especially for proteins and samples with low surface tension. In addition, the system requires no calibration or routine maintenance, enabling researchers to have the highest confidence that their microvolume measurement data is accurate. EasyApps® software includes preconfigured separate applications for the most commonly measured biomolecule types, increasing workflow optimization and ease-of-use. The DS-11 FX+ is designed to accommodate micro-volume samples, such as DNA, as well as larger samples in cuvettes for absorbance or fluorescence measurements. Just 1µL of sample is required to make a reliable microvolume measurement at a wide concentration range - from 0.75 to 37,500 ng/µL of dsDNA.

Find out how Absorbance and Fluorescence or Biomolecule Quantitation can be easily carried out using the DS-11 FX+ Spectrophotometer / Fluorometer, or watch this SelectScience video interview to find out how researchers are using the DS-11 FX+ to enable analysis of low abundance DNA samples

Figure 4: Learn more about the features of the Reviewer's Choice award-winning DeNovix DS-11 FX+ Spectrophotometer / Fluorometer in this video

The UV5Bio and UV5Nano Excellence (Figure 5) instruments from Mettler Toledo International Inc. optimize life sciences workflows with FastTrack™ technology that enables full spectrum scans within one second. In addition to direct measurements, a library of pre-verified biological methods, such as Bradford and Lowry assays, can be selected quickly through the One Click™ touchscreen, further adding to the system’s efficiency and ease-of-use. Methods can also be easily be edited and it is possible to store up to 50 at a time for quick analysis. The UV7 from Mettler-Toledo’s UV/Vis Excellence line is compliant with strict European and US pharmacopeia regulations and addresses the issue of time-consuming performance verification in regulated laboratories with the CertiRef module. In addition, the Excellence line can be easily integrated with other Mettler-Toledo instruments using LabX software, to facilitate any laboratory workflow.

Figure 5: Watch the video to learn more about Mettler-Toledo’s UV/Vis Spectrophotometers

8. Future Trends

Although UV/Vis spectroscopy is a well-established technique, the technology continues to evolve. Since the first UV/Vis spectrophotometer in 1947, rapid advances in electronics, optics and software have paved the way for easier- to-use, more compact and flexible instruments. Manufacturers are devising innovative ways to meet specific end-user requirements, both in the hardware and software components.

8.1 Hardware

  • An exciting technology that is becoming ever more commonplace in UV/Vis spectrophotometers is photodiode array technology, which is helping to increase the speed and robustness of the instruments, ultimately leading to enhanced throughput.
  • As demand for smaller, space efficient instruments increases, more compact benchtop instruments are being produced that can carry out multiple types of spectrophotometric analyses e.g. UV/Vis and fluorescence.
  • Widening detection limits for UV/Vis analysis will reduce the amount of time spent on sample preparation by eliminating the need to concentrate or dilute samples. This is particularly useful for challenging samples with concentrations at either extreme.

8.2 Software

  • Features such as sample contaminant identification are improving the quality of data produced and helping researchers identify problems in their workflows.
  • Data analysis software is continually improving and becoming more user-friendly, enabling fast and accurate interpretation of results.
  • Increasing connectivity of instrumentation is making it easier than ever to access data from a range of devices and locations.
 

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